Blaming Weeds

My garden would be great if only I didn’t have these two weeds: Crabgrass and Bindweed.

Crabgrass (Digitaria sanguinalis). Every year this grassy weed quickly covers my soil with tiny seedlings from spring through summer. If I don’t aggressively keep the soil well swept of these millions, they’ll march rapidly ahead of my young vegetables, and if allowed to advance any further a dense smothering mat forms. If I weed often enough I can mitigate that damage by using a hoola-hoe or similar weeding tool cutting the young tender roots just below the soil surface. Inevitably I miss a few, many actually, and my only option of control is to pull each by hand, sometimes uprooting a nearby vegetables along with it. I learned this the hard way my very first gardening year, naively thinking how attractive the garden had become covered in so many harmless little green sprouts. What a disaster year that was. This is how the joy of gardening becomes work.

crabgrassA hundred crabgrass seedlings cover only a few inches of earth.

Field Bindweed (Convolvuls arvensis) is the most wicked weed of them all, even defying poison sprays as its roots grow six feet deep in almost no time at all, far from harms reach. Frustrating my best efforts, I seriously considered spraying with a toxic stew of man-made chemicals out of gardeners vengeance. In the end I decided against it, and believed that somehow I must manage this through weeding alone. Against this foe however, the more you weed, the more you break its roots, the more numerous it becomes. Where you pull one, two will grow, where you pull two, four will grow, and so it goes. When totally uncontrolled this dastardly organism can not tolerate coexistence with your more delicate vegetables, sprawling across the garden seeking out your tomatoes, peas and peppers, grabbing hold of them and choking them down to the ground as no plant could hate another so intensely. Desperately I searched for an answer from a wall of organic gardening manuals, finding but two possible solutions: spray poisons for many years or cover the soil with a suffocating plastic for many years, preferably both. It seems eradicating this plant can only occur by exhausting every last ounce of energy from its deep roots. Each year is the same as the one before, cursing and weeding, weeding and cursing.

bindweed1Bindweed spreading out in search of vegetables to prey upon.

I paused my work one afternoon and pondered this gardening fate. Was my soil short on chemicals to rescue it from these ills? Must I accept this botanical curse? I looked curiously at the bindweed I was trying to free from climbing a pole intended for peas, and realized my foe may actually be struggling. An unhealthy plant growing alongside a robust and healthy pea, sick and under attack by some unknown fungus. I found another not far away in a recently reclaimed area where I had planted potatoes, but it was healthy as any plant could be. Later that fall I sent in two soil samples for analysis and when combined with my notes it become quite clear, the soil conditions were ideal for my two great enemies, the recently reclaimed plot even more so.

bindweed2Weeds are the protectors of the soil and exist to restore fertility where degraded. My soil was in poverty having been mined of all its riches long ago, and constantly frustrated from restoration. A mineral balance ideal for weeds and grasses, but not for vegetables. Nutrient and energy restrictions supported a thriving weed population that competed well against what I had intentionally sown. The soil was often dry, receiving almost no rain all summer and fall and a dormant biology when I needed them most. Soil low in humic acid and struggled to perform effective aerobic breakdown of organic matter, a condition preferential for weeds. A subsoil that was also very dry, magnetically tight, airless and compacted preventing proper fermentation of plant residues. The surface was often left bare, suffering from intense summer sun, erosion and harsh winter weather, inducing crabgrass hormones to go ecstatic and sprout like mad as soon as a little water was added. The only means to combat the deep roots of bindweed is with antagonistic fungi, something my soil was in very short supply.

I understand now the folly of applying herbicides and covering the ground with plastic. These suffocating measures only work through total destruction of fertility, an extermination so intense that even the hardiest organism succumbs. Poverty soil for poverty vegetables.

The cause of my two weedy problem: a fragile natural environment disrupted by my ineptitude, a garden steward forcing plants to grow where they are not adapted and rejecting the ones that were. I had blamed the weeds when it was I that had granted them the right to thrive.

Having recognized this the task now is to restore fertility and beat out the weeds through nutrition, health and energy. The first thing I could do was establish a balance of the major minerals by applying amounts of gypsum, sulfates, manganese, zinc, copper, sodium, soft rock phosphate, etc. I added the missing rare earth minerals and improved the energy profile of the soil by applying finely ground basalt dust and humic acid. I then added food for the biology in the form of meals, raw milk, molasses, trace minerals, enzymes and vitamins. I provide support to all the plants now to produce excess carbons and encourage them to deposit their sugars into the soil for the biology to consume. I created and apply probiotic solutions to repopulate the earth in soil bacteria and fungi using good compost, teas and other live cultures. And I created a better biological home by adjusting my cultural practices, growing more green manures, avoid unnecessary digging and tilling, halted the removal of organic material from the surface, leaving it in place to decay and protect the soil as a digestible mulch.

Each year now improves and joy returns to gardening.

~Sean

Planting Soil Blocks

April may be my busiest time of year, and I am very late in my posting this month. One of those busy things is transplanting dozens of seed flats full of young plants. It’s now time for many of them to go outside.

My experience with Soil Blocks has been really great. I get very good results and avoid using pots whenever possible, but nothing ever goes as planned. This year I’ve noticed two problems. The first was I used a different brand of worm castings in a few trays. These plants struggled and it looked to me like there was a phosphorus deficiency and I found it necessary to supplement them with some liquid fertilizer to keep them going. The other problem I noticed was that for some of my plants I believe I started them a little too early in the season and by the time they were transplanted some of the lower leaves started to yellow, also indicative of a nutrient deficiency.

traysPictured here are many of my Brassica transplants: three varieties of kale, two broccoli types and a purple cauliflower. These seven trays had been growing in my basement for at least four weeks prior. A week before my transplant date I moved the young plants outside into the hoop house so that they can begin to feel what the outside world is like. This is called hardening-off.

The next step is to prepare the transplanting bed. I first used a hula-hoe or scuffle-hoe to quickly mop up any weeds that had germinated and pull any larger weeds. I then added some humic acid, kelp meal and some rock dust made of crushed basalt. Mix this into the top two or three inches, then rake the bed out flat.

Now I determine spacing, information usually given on the seed packet. I’ve learned that not all seed packet information is the same. I usually also look through a reference book or two and search the internet as well. Your experiences and individual soil conditions will also suggest differences. I do most of this look up during the winter months when I am stuck indoors and document them on my calender.

bedrowFor transplanting, the first step is to determine the plant spacing. Plant spacing is easy, it’s the distance recommended between each plant. Don’t confuse that with seed spacing, you want the final spacing between plants after thinning. I review, but usually ignore the row spacing. Row spacing is how many feet between growing rows if you’re farming, or as many gardeners do scaled-down farming. Pre-industrial gardening is a nearly forgotten art. Most gardeners base their knowledge on the experience of farming and scale that downwards into the garden space. The spacing used for farming is very inefficient and was born out of the need to accommodate a tractor.

For my Brassica’s, I started at the end of the four foot wide bed and measured out two rows for the broccoli and cauliflower, and three rows for the Kale. Please note that the distance between my rows is the plant spacing, NOT the row spacing. You can even go a little smaller if you stagger the transplants in each row. Another thing I’ve learned is to be sure and think about how your going to weed later in the season and to always leave enough room for your favorite weeding tool. I normally space my bed rows no less than 6-8 inches apart. Then I take a stick and carefully draw the rows down the length of the bed to mark them.

Now I extend the measuring tape down the length of the bed and fix it there. Using a hand hoe I quickly dig transplanting holes using the measuring tape to guide the spacing. When you have more than one row in the bed, I alternate the transplant holes. For example, with my kale I used 12 inch spacing and I dug holes down the first row on the foot markers (1, 2, 3, …). The second row I offset the holes by 6 inches (1.5, 2.5, 3.5, …), and for the third row I went back to the foot markers (1, 2, 3, …). This actually put each plant at about 13.5 inches apart. This gives you whats called BED SPACING. In the same space using traditional rows I would have only achieved two rows, not three, and I just increased my yield by 33%.

sbOnce all the holes are created, I decided to insert a small handful of high quality worm castings into each hole and mix it up by hand a little. Then I carefully lowered each block into its new home, but haven’t buried them just yet.

Since this blog is about Biological Gardening, how could I leave that out. I now mix in some beneficial bacteria with several gallons of water and use a watering can to wet each block well. After this I carefully bury each plant up to its cotyledons. The cotyledons were those first two seed leaves that formed after germination.

Since I did this work a few weeks ago now, I can also report how they are doing: The plants with the bad worm castings, have recovered and are now growing well, although they are still behind the others. The plants that were started a little too early are still alive and growing but they did struggle to get through a few light frost. The plants that were started indoors at the appropriate time, are doing amazingly well and are bright, green and happy. Despite the differences, of the 224 brassica plants featured here I haven’t lost a single one.

Why would the plants I started only one or two weeks earlier be struggling from a few light frosts when the others are so nice? Their brix was low because the block didn’t have enough nutrition to support that extra growth time. We can discuss this more in the fall, but a high brix plant is not phased by a little frost, as the extra sugar/nutrition lowers the freezing point of the plant.

Cheers,

~Sean

Early Potatoes

Last weekend I planted my early potatoes, far ahead of the main potato planting schedule. If all goes well we should be roasting fresh new baby potatoes by June, four to six weeks before the main season starts. If you want to try your hand at growing early potatoes, this is my method.

I grow about eight varieties of potatoes every year, but only one for early potatoes, Yukon Gold. Normally I wouldn’t have picked such a commonly available strain, but for our purposes we need one that’s vigorous and matures quickly, something Yukon’s work very well for. I’ve also found this varieties yellow flesh to be richer in flavor, as a matter of fact, every variety with yellow flesh is richer in flavor. Since discovering that I’ve dropped all those boring and tasteless white fleshed types from the growing schedule. The flesh color comes from several health giving phytonutrients and is documented well in Jo Robinson’s book Eating on the Wild Side. White fleshed potatoes are very low in these extra nutrients, even if the skin is dark and vibrant.

chitpotatoesThe time for planting early potatoes is about four weeks before you would otherwise plant your main harvest potatoes. The first step is to pre-sprout, or chit them. I pulled my seed potatoes out of storage three or four weeks ago and carefully arranged them into an empty seed flat so that the root side of the potato was generally downwards. The root side can be identified by locating the scar where it was attached to the mother plant the previous year. I then placed the tray in a warmer room exposed to indirect light. After a few weeks you should see small buds forming as you can see in this picture.

You can’t drop your potatoes in the cold damp soil of early spring to decay, the soil must be warmed first. A week ago I moved one of my cheap portable low tunnels over the planting bed, and was simultaneously blessed with a weeks worth of sunshine. By potato planting time, the soil temperature had risen to 55 degrees, while the outside soil was still slinking at a cool 40.

For seed bed preparation, most of the work was done the previous fall where I had carefully deep-tilled and re-mineralized the soil. My beds are about four foot wide and this year I will be fitting in two ten foot rows spaced about 18 inches apart. With a narrow shovel I quickly dug two parallel trenches down the bed, about eight inches deep. I then sprinkled in a few handfuls of Gypsum into each trench to provide some extra Calcium.

To prepare the seed potatoes, carefully cut the larger ones into golf ball sized pieces, making sure to get at least a few good sprouts, or eyes, on each piece. Your typical potato planting recommendations encourage you to coat each piece in a sulfur based anti-fungal powder/chemical to kill pathogenic fungus. For naturally disease resistant and nutrient dense potatoes that’s an absolutely terrible idea. Of course I did the exact opposite and coated my seed pieces with a beneficial fungus instead.

lowtunnelPlace each potato seed about a foot apart into the trenches, making sure the eyes are facing upwards. Then partially fill in the trench with about four inches of earth. Lastly, I added a couple handfuls of high quality worm castings, kelp meal and about two lbs of rock dust per trench and watered it all in well.

Now the potatoes just need some time, and a little climate control by covering their bed with the low tunnel again. Our baby potatoes now have everything needed to encourage maximum biological activity and nutrient availability for a healthy start.

~Sean

UPDATE: read about the results here on Early Potatoes II

Success with Weeds

Weeds do not grow in old-growth forests, it’s not their environment. Like all organisms, weeds grow well when they are within their particular ecological niche, one that supports their needs the best. This brings us to the theory of Ecological Successionthe observed process of change in a species structure of an ecological community over time. This describes how environments change due to life processes and thus supporting differing kinds of organisms in the same place over different periods of time.

sprgLets begin with an inhospitable environment, slowly colonized by hardy pioneering plants capable of surviving and thriving in that terrible place. Through their actions of living and growing, the conditions to support other plants are now met and new species move in and eventually replace the pioneering ones, as the conditions are no longer conducive to them. This processes continues over and over again until a stability of sorts is met, called a climax community, like an ancient old-growth forest. Ecological succession can take many hundreds or thousands of years to occur naturally.

Plant succession can be seen just about anywhere. Take you family on a hike through a natural area. Starting in the parking lot, a very inhospitable environment, you can see early pioneering plants peeking through cracks in the pavement and growing through gravel. As you enter the trail you can see very hardy plants growing on the well trodden trail. As you pass through a field you can see grasses and wildflowers succeeding to bushes and small trees and at the forest edge tall trees take over and the plant species change yet again. In time, the field and parking lot may too become forest.

bindweedPlant succession can also be witnessed in the garden, converting a section of your lawn to a vegetable plot is a good example. The lawn is a sort of Climax Community, while the combined actions of the lawn mower and Weed & Feed keep the conditions static. Till up the grass and you have now caused a drastic change in the environment, no longer suitable for lawn grass. Initially your garden soil may be somewhat rich that first year and weeds are wimpy and easily swept away. The next year however may be different and your weed pressure increases. Now the garden is being heavily attacked by very noxious weeds such as bindweed and quack-grass. No matter how hard you control them they just seem to win, and by mid-summer gardening is fast becoming a real chore. You now consider applying an herbicide to remove those pesky weeds once and for all, but they return the following year intent as ever to take over your lot.

Most garden weeds are lower succesional plants, meaning that they are the pioneer plants capable of growing well in disturbed, unbalanced and inhospitable grounds. These weeds can be found anywhere people have seriously disturbed the area by stripping away the topsoil, applied toxic compounds or mined the soil of its limited minerals. Observe the plants growing along the sides of a road, a farmers field, the front lawn or your own garden plot. Most fruits and vegetables on the other hand are higher successional plants found naturally growing only in the deep rich soils near streams and rivers.

bglsFor robust and successful weeds, all you need to do is observe the conditions that allow the weeds healthiest growth and practice soil management in a way that continuously converts soil to dirt. Be sure to break up the ground frequently with lots of digging and tilling. Limit and destroy the microbiological life by applying herbicides, pesticides and other toxins. Use plants to mine the soil of nutrients and minerals and never return them. Apply fertilizers and compost excessively. Remove all plant residues, including grass clippings and leaves, and if necessary throw them into the garbage. And always make sure the soil stays bare for as much of the year as possible.

That is the irony. The misconception is the conditions that allow for healthy vegetable growth are the same conditions that allow for healthy weed growth. That just isn’t true. If your weeds are overpowering your garden, your soil conditions are not suited for vegetables. If however your vegetables are overpowering your weeds, then you’ve got one awesome garden.

~Sean

pH part II

In the first part of this article, I presented what the conventional approach to pH is, what it’s accused of doing, some ideas on how pH actually works in the soil and should have impressed upon you the notion that pH is hardly what it’s made out to be. There’s a claim that “good plant growth” can’t be assured unless you fix your pH, but I counter that notion and state that this assurance can only come from appropriate soil mineral nutrition.

pH is not a cause… it is an effect.

It is the reflection of the the soil makeup. In our case we want nutrient rich crops growing in fertile soil with the most happy pH of 6.4. This would afford maximum nutrient availability to the plants. If however your pH is too high or too low, the pH is not the cause of poor plant health rather it is sign, a message to you about the state of your soil mineral balance and biological activity. It’s also not the end of your gardening career if you can’t achieve the perfect reading, many native soils can be difficult to impossible to move very far. If you can’t get your pH into the ideal range experiments have shown that if a plant’s roots have access to adequate nutrients and there is no toxicity then pH makes little difference. Therein lies the crux of the problem, availability of nutrients is the limiting factor, not pH. A strongly acid or alkaline soil may be a sign that soil nutrition is in bad shape, but that can be mitigated by excellent biology.

vinesCalcium lime is not the only material that can raise the pH either, so can magnesium, sodium, carbon and potassium. Likewise sulfur is not the only mineral that will lower the pH, so will phosphorous and chlorine. On your typical farm, the heavy use of salt fertilizers creates a situation of rising pH levels, where calcium is not then being applied, resulting in a calcium deficient soil, followed by cascading nutrient failures and greater and greater problems. In your garden things could be different, or very similar, with over application of dolomite lime creating a magnesium problem, or an over application of compost/manure creating phosphorus or potassium imbalance achieving the same situation. Poor nutrient availability to the plant leads to poor plant health leads to disease and insect attack and a low quality nutrient poor product.

In my own garden space I had just this case. A slightly high pH with a soil mineral matrix that included naturally excessive magnesium and potassium, little calcium and several years of over zealous applications of manure and compost that intensified the imbalance. It was the perfect situation for induced plant stress, low quality vegetables and rampant weed problems… much to my dismay. Had I followed the conventional thinking, organic or not, a little bit of sulfur would have been applied along with more compost. Net result would have been an ever worsening change in the soil, including increasing soil compaction and no improvement whatsoever to produce quality.

What about the idea that certain plants prefer a soil within a particular pH range? For example blue berries are thought to prefer an acid soil of 5.5 to 6.5, alfalfa from 6.5-7.5 and corn and wheat from 6.5-7.0. Studies in plant nutrition and available calcium have shown the truth of the matter (Soil Acidity as Calcium (Fertility) Deficiency Albrecht), when there is sufficient calcium for good growth then pH as low as 4.5 can grow a great crop. And since low pH soils are usually limed with calcium it erroneously leads one to think that pH makes a difference. Even the nitrogen fixing abilities of certain soil bacteria on legumes only works effectively when there is sufficient available calcium in the soil regardless of the pH.

Interestingly there is an alternative way to understand pH that makes a lot of sense. Recall from the last article I introduced the idea of positively charged ions called cations, and negatively charged ions called anions. What’s the importance of this? It’s that pH is a measurement of electrical resistance in the soil. Thus a pH reading of 7 means that there is an equal amount of resistance between the cation and anion charges. A high pH indicates there is too much electrical resistance in the soil, causing a restriction in energy-nutrient flow to the plant, while a low pH indicates that there is too little resistance causing an overload of energy-nutrient flow. Keep this idea in mind as in the future we will discuss this in more detail and how we can use electrical conductivity to monitor and improve upon plant nutrient uptake.

So instead of working to adjust your pH, it’s more essential to manage the factors that construct the soil pH. A very fertile soil for high nutrient and energy production is a living biological system and must must be carefully balanced for the needs of the soil microorganism via an equilibrium of pH, soil minerals, energy, physical conditions and organic substances. Without this balance, the potential for plant nutrition and soil building erodes.

Remember then, that pH is a consequence of soil nutrient and biological interactions, it is not a cause of anything. pH can however be a useful gauge for you to monitor how various nutrients and other substances you apply are interacting with your soil. It is not however to be used to determine what nutrient, mineral or compound to apply to the soil. That should only be done after you have carefully reviewed all the factors that contribute to excellent soil fertility.

~Sean

Favorite Seed Sources

All together I grow upwards of 300 varieties of fruits, vegetables, herbs and flowers each year. The majority are certainly heirloom varieties, but I do grow some modern hybrids if I believe it offers something unique to the garden. Recall that my space is French Potager themed and we are always on the look out for the most attractive vegetables. I do always avoid growing anything that I can commonly get in a grocery store. This is not because store varieties don’t have something to offer, but that I am more interested in expanding my diet and discovering new flavor and textures. In terms of nutrient dense gardening, there is much more to consider here as well.butterfly

Many people believe that heirlooms are more nutritious than non-heirlooms but I think that’s hardly the case. It’s true that the genetics of an heirloom variety may contain higher amounts of certain phytonutrients as was made abundantly clear in Jo Robinson’s recent book “Eating on the Wild Side”. It is however equally likely that a modern hybrid can contain higher amounts of other phytonutrients. A hybrid grown in nutrient dense soil will outperform an heirloom grown in average soil, and vice versa.

In regards to genetics of heirloom plants, DNA only defines how the plant should be made, but it’s the environment that dictates the materials available for the construction. Think of the story of the three little pigs comparing the straw house to the brick house, they’re both houses but clearly one is more robust than the other.

Heirloom varieties are also generally more demanding of good soil nutrition, where commercial varieties were bred to withstand the nutrient poor and biologically devastated soils of the typical conventional farm. If your soil lacks energy, you will actually get a better response from hybrids than from heirlooms but be prepared to provide them with extra support as they will be sick.

Seed quality also makes an important impact in getting a good nutrient dense product. Low health plants will produce low health seeds that lack the rare minerals needed for maximum early plant health and reduced seedling stress. Poor seed is less dense, weighs less, smaller in size, less likely to germinate and is more susceptible to pathogenic attack. At this time I know of no commercial source that sells consistently high test weight seeds. Your best bet is to save the seed from your own quality plantings.seedpackets

I also only purchase untreated organic seed. To me, any plant that needed chemical support is a poor candidate for your garden. Non-organic seeds  are also sometimes treated with chemicals to inhibit the growth of bacteria and fungus. This is because seedlings from these are in such poor health that they easily succumb to pathogenic attack. You cannot grow a nutrient dense product without the support of the soil microorganisms, so killing them is not recommended.

Lastly, I am located in eastern Washington and getting locally produced seed is always wise. This has two clear benefits. The first being that you’re supporting your local economy and not the economic interests of a pile of shareholders who could care less about your garden, and the second is that many of the seeds are already acclimated to the nuances of your particular climate. I encourage you to find some companies located near you too.

Seed sources I frequently use in the US Pacific Northwest, in no particular order:

And here are some others that I use, also in no particular order:

~Sean

Soil Blocks: the Building Blocks of Life

Within the first few days of seed germination the maximum yield for your vegetable plant has already been determined. From that point on any and all types of stress that the plant sustains has a direct impact upon your harvest, be it from the weather, nutrients, water, chickens, children, insects, cloudy days, etc. Thus any effort you make to increase your yield in reality is an effort made to decrease your loss of yield. As garden manager, your role then is to identify ways to reduce plant stress at every possible stage to ensure a bounteous crop of nutrient rich food.

blockerThe place to start your plant stress reduction strategies is during seeding, actually it starts with seed selection but that’s for another time. I quickly learned during my first year of indoor seed starting that there was a trick to accomplishing this successfully. First, it didn’t take me long to realized that I was going to have to replace all my black plastic seedling flats every single year, they sure make those things cheap. It also just pains me to have to buy the same thing over and over again year after year, but what other options were available? A little bit of online research revealed to me another method and no more plastic cells and pots. Instead, the pot can be made of the soil itself, soil blocks!

With soil blocks, my young plants grew more vigorously and were highly resistant to the stress of transplant shock. Also, the seedling roots no longer spiraled out of control at the bottom of the cell or pot, but instead upon hitting the outside air the roots will check their own growth and then shoot off again after transplanting. Additionally, losses due to transplant shock were very rare with almost 100% transplant success. There are however a few new concerns. First, you have to be more careful with watering, the extra soil surface area dry’s out a little faster, but that’s easily managed. The other thing is that it’s more time consuming to build the blocks, but this is one area you can have a big impact on plant stress and its worth the extra time, besides its still winter and it gives me something enjoyable to do.

If you want to try soil blocks here is my method, there are many variations so don’t think this is the only way:

  1. soilblocksPick up the soil blocker of your choice off the internet, you can even find directions for making your own. I purchased a 4-cell two inch block maker and it will last me a lifetime of use.
  2. Pick up several higher quality leak proof seedling flats, still black plastic but reusable every year. Naturally they cost a little more, but the price makes up for itself after only one year. Whatever trays you use its important that they do not leak. All the trays I bought from the big box store’s were junk.
  3. Pick up an equal number of black plastic flats that are perforated, or just melt some extra holes into the ones you were going to throw away from last year. The flats I found at my local seed store were exactly that.
  4. Insert the perforated flat into the leek proof flat. When you want to water your blocks gently pull the top tray out, add water to the bottom tray and reinsert the top tray. Always bottom water your soil blocks.
  5. Make your block mixture. There is a trick to this, if you use the wrong materials, not enough water, or too much water then your blocks may not work out. I use about 80% soil less seed starting mixture, 10% high quality worm castings, 5% rock dust, 5% kelp meal and a bacteria/fungal biological inoculation. Mix with water to the right consistency and start making your blocks.
  6. Space the blocks on your trays so there is at least a 1/2 inch of space between them.
  7. Drop your seed of choice into the small hole at the top. Then for most seeds I take a pinch of the soil less mixture and cover the seed, followed with a squirt from the spray bottle to dampen it.
  8. Cover with a clear plastic dome to create a moist environment and wait for germination.
  9. Drink a nice glass of wine to celebrate your hard work and reduce your own stress.

~Sean

Biological Gardening

As a Biological Gardener I seek to establish a cooperative relationship with nature; encouraging and establishing a deep biological connection between soil, plant and people. Here we will employ a system for balancing the garden ecosystem, encouraging life to its fullest genetic potential, encouraging energy, shaping the environment and providing maximum nutrient availability. There shall be no application of any product that causes one side to gain over any other. The primary objective here is to achieve maximum plant health in a naturally beneficial system. One where disease resistance, insect resistance, high yields and nutrient dense foods are a consequence of excellent garden management.

But how is this different from Organic Gardening? I have a book case full of manuals on organic gardening and still I failed to receive any results that were appreciably different from conventional agriculture. Perhaps Organic could be so much more, but after USDA certification and the take over by monetary interest, I believe the potential it once had may now be lost. The problem is that the whole system continues to use an exploitative and warfare-centric model for production, using organic pesticides over conventional pesticides, the farmer and gardener still fails to notice his sick plants and instead attacks the symptom. Is an organic apple with a worm any better than a conventional apple with a poisoned worm? No, the apple in both cases lacked the essential nutrients in order to achieve a naturally worm resistant apple. If the apple is good for the worm, its mostly definitely is not good for you.

Soil health is plant health is animal health is human health. Here the the whole of the system is far greater than the sum of its parts.

~Sean